CITIZEN SCIENCE

# Science # Science for people # Citizen # Birds # Wildlife

Bird watching is a healthy habbit. It will give peace to mind and also gives good physical feeling. so, It shouldn’t keep upto ourselves.we can also help birds which we watch and surprised. Generally those who are well versed in identifying birds should help for citizen science and also for researchers rather than keeping notes and photos in their folders.

Introduction to citizen sience

Common people’s contribution is very substantial for scientific research and wildlife protection. common people helping for scientific research is called citizen science.

Creating interst on wildlife, showing some kindness to living organisms,making school and college students,common people, naturalist to participate in the scientific reserach and people science activities. This makes them to understand better about nature. so that they can get a chance to participate in these scientific reserach.

Aim of citizen science

people who are participating in these activities are not only doing the work of gathering information. But they will have a idea about the back ground of scientific reserach.Also,they will develop interest towards science and will become a responsible naturalist.

Not only for reserach purposes,citizen science is providing a big platform for all the people,who are intersted in wildlife,nature conservation.

In next blog i will explain in detail about how common people participate in citizen science

source : book”பறவைகள்” by p.jaganathan and kriya

credits: Dr.P.Jeganathan, scientist

Nature conservation foundation

SAFETY PIN

# Science # Science for people # pin

Inventor : WALTER HUNT

year : 1849

ALLEGORY OF SAFETY PIN

walter hunt was an american mechanic. He was born in martinsburg. He invented sewing machine,street car bell,knife sharpner and hard caol burning stove. Though he was a profolic inventor he didn’t earn a single dollar.

walter hunt


so surprise here is, he invented safety pin to repay 15 dollar to his friend which he already lended


Then he sold this safety pin to his friend for 400 dollar. pity here is that safety pin was sold for several crores,but,walter hunt couldn’t earn nothing

I will end with this by saying Einstein quote “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”

TORCH LIGHT

#science #scientific writing #science for people # invention

In december 2019  I went for  birding in kumily at kerala. I stayed in holiday home resort. I and my birding colleagues decided to do nocturnal birding. At holiday home resort, when we were getting ready for our birding, my  senior insisted me to take a torch light. Because, torch light is used for displaying majesty of birds in nocturnal time which are hidden among the tree branches. we started our bird walk at 10:30 pm, crossed over 300 metres. suddenly a sound alerted us. on right side of one neem tree between the branches at 10 meters height, my colleague asked me flash the torch on right side of branch there was a heavenly suprise to see a bird with red eye and brown feathers. It took more than 75 seconds to Id the bird. finally selvaganesh( school teacher ) said that aves is a brown hawk owl

birding in night       brown hawk owl
      


              but, the thing which suprised me at that point of time was the torch light . Yes, not only the bird, the useful invention which made us to locate the bird is the essence of my blog today
 

                 ALLEGORY   OF   TORCH
              

          founder : conard hubert
    
         year        :  1890


                In early days of 1890 hubert travelled to russia. His close friend was trying to design a flower pool with light which was connected to a battery                     
                         On seeing this hubert tried to do it in another way. In a folded  cardboard he placed a battery and connected the bulb on the batteries and  tried to flash out the light. After this invention people called it as torchlight/ flash light. some days aftet 1898 he got patent for this electric torch light and started to sell it out. In 1920  he manage to earn Rs 80lakhs



I will end the blog by famous saying of abdul kalam “If you want to change world  first you should change yourself”
            
        
             

Discoveries and inventions

#scientific writting #science for people

When I was in childhood days i used to get suprised about scientists who discovered amazing things. Last month I went to attend the conference at Thanjavur. I was travelling in the bus to thanjavur, when it crossed the sengipatti, suddenly i got a mind blowing idea.As my thurst to learn about various branches of science( especially in interdisciplinary sciences) why can’t i study about scientific inventions?

yes, from my next few blogs about scientific inventions.

PACE MAKER

INVENTOR : wilson greatbatch

YEAR : 1958

ALLEGORY OF PACE MAKER

Wilson great batch was an electrical engineer. when he was doing research in medical technology he found one large instrument to measure the heartbeat

After few months he wanted to reduce the size of instrument so he inserted the resistor, then he observed. he was very much suprised that it is working very similar to the human heartbeat

x ray image of pacemaker

Aftet 2 years he properly reset the instrument and found the artificial pacemaker. Then he updated the pacemaker with non corroding lithium battery

I will end with this by thomas alva edison saying “acheieving thing 100% matters 99% of dedication and 1% of inspiration”.

பொங்கல் பறவைகள் கணக்கெடுப்பு 2020

நான் என் சொந்த வேலை நிமித்தமாக விருதுநகர் மாவட்டத்தில் உள்ள வத்திராயிருப்பு ( என் சொந்த ஊர்) எனும் கிராமத்துக்கு கடந்த ஜனவரி மாதம் 16ம் தேதி சென்றேன். அதற்கு முன்பு நான் சென்னை சென்ட்ரலலிருந்து மதுரை வரை செல்லும் டூரண்டோ விரைவு வண்டியில் 15ம் தேதி இரவு 10.45 மணிக்கு ஏறினேன். மறுநாள் காலை 5.05 மணியளவில் வண்டி கூடல் நகர் மதுரைக்கு முன்பு சிக்கினலுக்கு நின்றுகொண்டிருந்தது. நான் அசதியாக எழுந்து வாய்கொப்பளிப்பதற்காக
சென்ற பொழுது நான் கண்ட முதல் பறவை வெண்மார்ப்பு மீன்கொத்தி (white throated kingfisher) மின்கம்பத்தில் மேல் ஒலியெழுப்பி உட்கார்ந்து கொண்டிருந்தது. பொங்கல் கணக்கெடுப்பு அ ன் று தான் தொடங்கியது

white throated kingfisher

photo: rohan lovalekar

நான் கண்ட முதல் பறவைஇதுதான்.

பின்னர் மதுரையில் இறங்கி எனது அண்ணன் விவேக் cs அவர்கள் அவரது வண்டி அரைமணி நேரம் தாமதமாக வரும் என்றார் மற்றும் திருமங்கலத்துக்கு செல்வதற்கு பயணச்சீட்டு எடுக்குமாறு கூறினார். பயணச்சீட்டு எடுப்பதற்காக அலுவலகதிற்கு சென்றபோது சுமார் 600 பேர் வரிசையில் நின்றுகொண்டிருந்தனர் . பின்னர் எப்படியோ பயணச்சீட்டு எடுத்து ஆகிவிட்டது. மைசூரிலிருந்து தூத்துக்குடி வரை செல்லும் வண்டியில் தான் அண்ணன் வருவதாக சொன்னார்;அவர் வருவதற்கு பத்து நிமிடங்கள் ஆகும் என்றார்;ஆகையால் மதுரை ஜங்சனில் சில நிமிடங்கள் பறவைகளை ரசிக்கலாம் என்று திட்டமிட்டேன் . அதன் படியே பறவைகளை பார்க்க தொடங்கினேன். பறவைகள் காலை நேரம் என்பதால் சுறுசுறுப்பாக இருந்தன . அங்கு கிளிகள்(rose ringed parakeet), குயில்(Asian koel), பருந்துகள்(black kites), காகங்கள்(house crow), அண்டங்காக்கைகள்(large billed crow) இருந்தன.

கிளி தன் குஞ்சுக்கு உணவு அளித்தது பார்ப்பதற்கு அலாதியாக இருந்தது.

பின்னர் அண்ணன் வந்தார் இருவரும் தொடர் வண்டியில் ஏறி திருமங்கலத்துக்கு சென்று கொண்டிருந்தோம் .நான் ஜன்னல் ஓரமாக உட்கார்ந்து கொண்டு பறவைகளைப் பார்த்துக்கொண்டே வந்தேன். திருபரங்குன்றத்தில் வண்டி ஒரு ஏரியை கடந்து சென்றுகொண்டிருந்தது. அந்த ஏரியைப்பார்த்த பொழுது என்
ஆன்மாமெய் சிலிர்த்தது! ஆம் அங்கே நான் கண்டது 10 வகையான பறவைகள் அவை நீர்க்காகங்கள்(cormorant),கொக்குகள்(egrets),மடையான்கள்(herons),புல்புல்(bulbul) மற்றும் சில பொதுவான பறவைகள் பலவகை கண்டேன்.

பின்னர் திருமங்கலம் சென்று அடைந்தோம். அங்கு காலை உணவை முடித்துவிட்டு ஊருக்கு செல்வதற்கு பேருந்துக்காக காத்து க் கொண்டிருந்தோம் அப்போதுதான் தவிட்டுக் குருவிகள் மரத்தின் அருகில் கன்டேன் அவை கூட்டமாக அங்குமிங்குமாக உணவை தேடி சுறுசுறுப்பாக பறந்துகொண்டிருந்தன. பின்னர் சட்டென்று ஒரு பறவை கண் இமைக்கும் நேரத்தில் கடந்து சென்றது.அதுதான் பொன்முதுகு மரம்கொத்தி (balck rumped falmebak) பார்ததும் ஆனந்தம்.

பின்னர் பேருந்து வந்து விட்டது நானும் எனது அண்ணனும் ஏறி ஊ ருக்கு சென்றோம்.

பொங்கல் பறவைகள் கணக்கெடுப்பு

நான் இம்முறை பொங்கல் கணக்கெடுப்புக்கு ஊரில் இல்லை ஆனாலும் என்னுடைய ஆர்வம் என்னை எங்கு சென்றாலும் விடுவது இல்லை பறவையை அவதானித்து ebird ல் தரவுகளை உள்ளிடுவது தான் எனது பிரதான வேலை.

பொங்கல் பறவைகள் கணக்கெடுப்பு ஆண்டுதோறும் பொங்கல் பண்டிகை தினங்களில் நடத்தப்படுகிறது தமிழ்நாட்டில் மட்டுமே நடக்கும் இந்த கணக்கெடுப்பில் பல பறவையாளர்கள் பல மாவட்டங்களுக்கு சென்று பறவைகளை அவதானித்து ebird ல் உள்ளிடுவர்கள்.

Chinese CRISPR Baby Scientist Imprisoned For Three Years

He Jiankui, the scientist behind the world’s first “gene-edited” babies Lulu and Nana has been sentenced to three years in prison by a court in China.

In November 2018, He Jiankui claimed that he had used CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology to edit the genes of twin girls Lulu and Nana to make them HIV resistant. This had provoked an outcry worldwide questioning the ethical integrity and safety of gene editing techniques. Thereafter he was temporarily suspended from all research activities.

According to the state news agency Xinhua, the Shenzhen court found the scientist behind the CRISPR babies guilty of illegal practices, jailed and fined him an amount of 3m yuan (US$430,000) along with his co-workers Zhang Renli and Qin Jinzhou who received two years prison with 1m yuan fine and 18-month sentence with 500,000 yuan fine respectively.

As per official reports, the team performed the gene-editing experiments in seven embryos without any supervision just to gain fame and fortune. The funds required for the experiments were raised by themselves.

“The three accused did not have the proper certification to practice medicine, and in seeking fame and wealth, deliberately violated national regulations in scientific research and medical treatment,” the court said, according to Xinhua. “They’ve crossed the bottom line of ethics in scientific research and medical ethics.”

Even though scientists were able to understand how genes can be edited in unborn babies, the practice is banned in most of the countries on ethical and moral grounds.

He Jiankui from the Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen had ignored the scientific and ethical norms to alter the genetic information of the twins to immunize them against HIV.

After the original research was published earlier this month, the MIT Technology Review had found that the team might have failed in reproducing the gene that makes some people immune to HIV.

source: biotechnika

BROWN DARNER

When we are enjoying nature some time we happen to see dargon flies but most of us don’t know about damselflies

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRAGON FLY AND DAMSELFLIES

Just easy to find them by as single identification tip

1.dragon flies when they are suppose to sit you can watch closer that wings are open

2.damselflies where they make their wings to close

Now i going say about my story regarding my experience

Key to identify the dragon and damsel fly

Now iam going to share my experience in field. When i go to bird watching i will disrturbed by some intresting dragonflies but i wouldn’t able to identify them but at last identify the beautifull name of it

I am glad to say that name is BROWN DARNER . if you can think what a special about that cresture ? Nothing but it is impressed me as a wildlife biologist should love each and everything in nature .

Some wealthy information regarding brown darner

Pic taken near my home

Brown darner scientific name is GYNACANTHA DRAVIDA

Size: Male: Abdomen:
50-58mm, Hind wing:43-50. Female:Abdomen: 48-55mm,
Hind wing: 44-50mm
Description: Male:Faceisolivaceousbrown
with a broad black T-shaped mark on theupper surface. Eyes:.Olivaceous.Thorax:
Brown. Legs: Reddishbrown. Wings:
Transparent andlightly tinted with
reddish brown throughout. Wing spot: Reddish brown. Abdomen: Pale
reddish brown. The third segment is constricted. Apical half of the first
segment is black above. Segments 3-8 have dark brown triangular
markings above andremaining segments arepale brown. Female: Is
similar to the male butmarkings are duller. Habitsand habitat: A crepusculardragonfly.

Common around
weed covered ponds and
tanks. Occasionally this
dragonfly comes to light at
night. Breeding: Breeds in
weed covered ponds and
tanks. Flight season: June-
November. Distribution:
Oriental region.

“Nature is beautiful”

One thing we warnt learn from nature is to produce themselves as a unique so humans are legs and foot of nature.

Hypoxia

October 1st weak nobel prize for 2019 was announced for 3 scientist

The three scientists are William Kaelin, a cancer researcher at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Massachusetts; Peter Ratcliffe, a physician-scientist at the University of Oxford, UK and the Francis Crick Institute in London; and Gregg Semenza, a geneticist at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland.

The team also won the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award in 2016.

What exactly is their work that got Nobel Prize?
Much like a fireplace, our cells use oxygen combining with carbon to release energy.
Cells cannot store oxygen, so they require a constant supply.  Oxygen is carried by red blood cells.  If red blood cells are deficient, oxygen transport fails and cells die, leading to brain damage and death.
Interestingly, our body has a mechanism to sense low oxygen levels or hypoxia and increase red blood cell production.
The oxygen sensor is located in the kidney.  When deprived of oxygen, the kidney secretes a protein called erythropoietin (EPO) that travels to the bone marrow where it stimulates production of new red blood cells.  (Patients with kidney failure or on chemotherapy are given erythropoietin injections to boost their red blood cell count.)
But, the three scientists working in tandem demystified how kidney cells activate the EPO gene in response to oxygen deficiency and switch off the activation when oxygen supply is sufficient.

Unraveling the oxygen sensor
It was clear from the beginning that there must be a protein that activates EPO. The protein must bind to a piece of DNA near the gene called an enhancer.
Semenza identified the enhancer. He used the enhancer to purify the transcription factor and he named it hypoxia inducible factor or HIF. The transcription factors are proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA.
He found that the amount of HIF increases when cells are deprived of oxygen. HIF enters the nucleus where it activates the EPO gene.
Ratcliffe and Kaelin identified another protein, called VHL, responsible for destroying that protein (HIF) when oxygen levels are high, and so, together, the work of the three prizewinners reveals a molecular switch for responding to oxygen levels.
Ratcliffe and Kaelin explained that VHL binds to amino acids on HIF that have oxygen atoms attached to them. If these amino acids lack oxygen, VHL cannot destroy HIF and HIF will live to activate EPO. What attaches oxygen to HIF? There must be an enzyme. The two scientists have found the enzymes dioxygenases. Put together they have solved an important scientific puzzle.
If was found that HIF activates 200 other genes.
How will this be useful?
The discovery of oxygen-sensing pathway has huge implications in treating several diseases. It helps us understand about the diseases such as cancers that proliferate using the oxygen-sensing system to grow tumors and chronic kidney disease that leads to anemia.
Armed with this knowledge, pharmaceutical companies are developing drugs that can either suppress or activate this oxygen-sensing machinery.
The Chinese have went first by developing a drug called Roxadustat, to treatment of patients with kidney cancer.
The drug works by inhibiting or suppresses HIF.
The drug developed by FibroGen China has received approval in China for the treatment of anaemia caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD).
There are similar drugs that are now under development aiming to treat patients with heart disease and lung cancer who struggle with hypoxia. More experimental drugs are under development to prevent tumour growth in some cancers by choking oxygen supply.
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